How many chances are there for humanity to move to another planet and live? Consider the seven bodies of the solar system as an example of the possibility of small settlements for a fraction, if not the entire human race.
Let’s start with Mercury, which is closest to the Sun. This planet is so close to the sun that there is no question of human habitation, and like the moon, the sun is only viewed from one side, where it is 450 degrees hot in one part, while the other part is too cold to support any form of life.
But even on such a terrible day, you can find a relatively habitable zone, the border between light and dark. In this area, people cannot live comfortably, grass does not grow, people cannot walk without special clothes, but to some extent, they can find a place to build a small colony. But there is no need to try to establish a colony in this terrible place.
Interestingly, the core of Mercury occupies 83% of the total volume of the planet.
For hundreds of years, humans have believed that this planet is inhabited by plants, animals, and oceans. It is impossible to think like this because Venus is very similar to our mother earth. In general, this planet was considered to be one of the three planets in the habitable zone, and because it is neither too far nor too close to the Sun, it was thought that it might be habitable. But the most important word here is “maybe”. In other words, it means that there may be no living conditions.
Since the 1960s, many satellites have been sent to this planet, and according to the messages they sent, it became clear that there is no possibility of human habitation there. What kind of life would there be in an environment heated to 450 degrees Celsius? Imagine melting lead at that temperature and 100 times the pressure on Earth. It is said that many satellites tried to land on this planet and were crushed just after entering its atmosphere. It is possible to create a completely sealed and habitable environment in such a place, but the most important question is why it should be done.
The planet is considered to be the most habitable planet, and it should be said that recently there is a different direction. This planet’s gravitational pull is three times less than Earth’s, which is a possible and somewhat beneficial feature. Easier to build a spaceship, lighter to launch a rocket into the depths of the solar system, etc. But to create all this, infrastructure needs to be built, and this is the main problem. It is possible for all mankind to migrate to Mars, but it will take hundreds of years and there is no guarantee that it will be successful.
If you go to Mars, there will be many problems, one example of which is that there is no magnetic field, so there is nothing to protect living organisms from radiation. Some scientists have solutions to the problem of the atmosphere, but nothing about the magnetic field. So, it makes little sense to talk about the entire human race going there, but there are many places on this planet where small colonies can be established.
The fact that the Moon is closer to Earth than Mars has many advantages. While you can fly to the moon any day, you can only travel to the red-eyed planet once every two years. However, there is no atmosphere on the moon, there is no magnetic field, and the fluctuation of air temperature is very high.
The Moon is the most habitable body (excluding Earth, of course) and since the 1970s countries such as the United States, the Soviet Union, and now China have made various plans to establish colonies there. There are dozens of projects ranging from small settlements for a few people to large colonies. It can be considered that the first steps have been taken to implement them, and the Gateway project to build a lunar orbiting station is the beginning of this. It will be similar to “Mir” and ISS, but differs in that it will operate in lunar orbit. As good as it sounds, it shows that there is still a long way to go before a human settlement can be established on our satellite.
Discovered in 1655, Titan didn’t get its name for nothing, and Saturn’s moon is larger than Mercury. In addition to having an atmosphere and a low gravitational force (1/7 of Earth’s), it is the second body in the solar system to contain a stable form of liquid. It is believed that liquid methane and ethane rained here, and lakes and rivers formed. Maybe there’s as much water as an ocean under a huge ice sheet. Even without such an ocean, it is believed that the simplest life forms could be created on Titan
Next is Enceladus, another moon of Saturn. There is no liquid on the surface of this satellite, but it is covered with dense ice. Of course, it doesn’t mean that you can just take it out of the ice and put it in whiskey and drink it. The ice may contain some of the strangest micro-organisms of the area, and the ice may be thousands or millions of years old. But it will be cheaper and lighter than transporting water from the earth.
Europa is the 6th moon of Jupiter. In addition to the magnetic field, there is the polar influence of Jupiter. It is said that the thin atmosphere is rich in oxygen and there may be an ocean more than 100 km deep under the dense ice cover. However, the thickness of the ice covering that sea is 2-30 km. Basically, if you want to live there, you will have to drill.